Book of Galatians Law vs Grace with Firsts and Seconds including God's Promise and discussion of Faith compared to Mosaic Law
Book of Galatians Law vs Grace with Firsts and Seconds including God's Promise and discussion of Faith compared to Mosaic Law

Argumentation - The Book of Galatians

Chapters 3 & 4
 
Galatians, Chapter 3.:

Now Paul proceeds directly from that warning that he had made to Peter, to confronting the Galatians who were obviously guilty of the same demonstrated behaviour.
If they weren’t, then all of the previous text, and this particular epistle, is simply pointless.
All of the preceding text consists of following the truth of Yeshua’s Gospel, living by Faith and NOT rejecting or denying the Grace of God, as OPPOSED to re-establishing the Mosaic Law and living by religiously observing the Mosaic Law.

3:1. O foolish (anoētos; not understanding, unwise, foolish) Galatians, who hath bewitched (baskainō; to speak ill of one, to slander, traduce him, to charm, to bewitch) you, that ye should NOT obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

Baskainō is only utilized once within Scripture, and above I have provided the Strong’s definitions. Let’s also look at the Vine's Expository Dictionary to obtain a greater understanding and clearer definition of the word.

They say, “primarily, to slander, to prate about anyone;" then "to bring evil on a person by feigned praise, or mislead by an evil eye, and so to charm, bewitch" (Eng., "fascinate" is connected), is used figuratively in Galatians 3:1., of leading into evil doctrine.”

Though the “NOT obey the truth” is not recorded within the Morphological Greek New Testament text within this verse, the translators of the King James included it here based upon Galatians 5:7. where it is included. For the “hinder” and “bewitching” that Paul is referring to are simply one and the same.
Therefore if this doctrine has taught someone to NOT follow the truth of Yeshua’s Gospel, then it is most definitely EVIL.
In essence, if it is contrary to the true Gospel, it is against or anti-Christ.

Notice also that Paul calls the Galatians "foolish" and makes reference to the Galatians being well aware that, Yeshua had been crucified, “Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you”.
Therefore “this bewitching” this “demonstrated behaviour” of religiously observing the Mosaic Law again, is to be understood as being in opposition to Yeshua’s crucifixion. Or, that by Yeshua’s crucifixion (where through that "act" there would be a "cause and effect") the Galatians, (as we have ourselves) have died to the Mosaic Law.
This ties in with what Paul had told Peter in Galatians 2:19.;
For I through the LAW (the Tôwrâh of God’s Promise, and the finished work of Yeshua) am dead to the (Mosaic) law, that I might live unto God. (Which again is expressed in Romans 7:1-6.)
  
Now Paul incredulously asks the Galatians what is basically a rhetorical question….

3:2. This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the (Mosaic) law, or by the hearing of FAITH?

The answer of course is, that the Galatians, (as we have ourselves) received God’s Spirit by the hearing of the Gospel, and having Belief and Faith in Yeshua being our Saviour.

3:3. Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect (epiteleō; “to bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete”) by the flesh?

What does Paul mean when he utilizes the word “flesh” here?

In the beginning we received God’s Spirit by our Belief and Faith and NOT by the Mosaic Law.
We are Sanctified (set apart) by God’s Spirit and NOT by the Mosaic Law.
Paul is utilizing the word “flesh” here in its figurative sense, and is not only referencing “the act of circumcision” but also in the broader sense, the "Mosaic Law”.

Figuratively, “flesh” represents “our performance”, mere man’s own futile human effort to fulfill Divine Intervention and ALL that the Promise(s) of God has already provided for us.

The reason that God grants us His free gift of His Righteousness through our Faith in Yeshua, is because as mere man, it is impossible for us to obtain a Righteousness that would be sufficient enough to be accepted by our Holy God on our own. (i.e. Philippians 3:2-9. above.)
And the maintaining of that granted position of His Righteousness, is also impossible to maintain on our own.

John 15:5.;
I am the Vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without Me ye can do nothing.
(i.e. Colossians 2:6,7. for another among many.)

It is ONLY through God’s Spirit that we can be “made perfect” and “bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, or complete” anything.

Philippians 1:6.;
Being confident of this very thing, that HE” (God’s Spirit, NOT the Mosaic Law) which hath begun a good work in you will perform (epiteleō; “to bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete”) it until the day of Jesus Christ:

Continuing….

3:4. Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.

Or, “Have you experienced so much for nothing? Surely it was not in vain, was it?”

The English vain, the transliterated “eikē”, defined in this context as “without purpose, without success”.
Paul is obviously quite concerned for the foolish Galatians having allowed themselves to be bewitched, and who are now practising a different gospel by observing the Mosaic Law.
Because again, they are “rejecting and denying” the Grace of God by doing so (verse 2:21.).
And since, “For by grace are ye saved through Faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: (Ephesians 2:8.)” I believe that Paul’s concern is warranted!

3:5. He therefore that ministereth (epichorēgeō; supplies, provides) to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth He it by the works of the (Mosaic) law, or by the hearing of Faith?

Again Paul asks another rhetorical question, and it should also be apparent that, by how he expresses those questions in 3:2,3. and 5. he is saying that there is a distinction between FAITH and MOSAIC LAW.
Paul then provides the answer to his third question below, by introducing the Patriarch Abraham into the conversation as being a prime example of Faith as opposed to Mosaic Law.

(For those that hold to the doctrine of Rabbinical Judaism, [teaching that is provided by those that are NOT born of God’s Spirit] and believe that Genesis 26:5. is somehow relevant to Abraham fulfilling the Mosaic Law, please see the Appendix.)

3:6. Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.

3:7. Know ye therefore that they which are of Faith, the same are the children of Abraham.

3:8. And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through Faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.

3:9. So then they which be of Faith are blessed with faithful Abraham.

The above four verses are described in more detail within Romans 9:6-13..
Nevertheless, it is only those that live by FAITH, ( rather than by the Mosaic Law), that will be declared and accounted as being righteous like Abraham was.

Though from the beginning of the Book of Galatians Paul makes what should be an obvious distinction between the Mosaic Law and Faith, where the above is just a continuation of this distinction, let’s just summarize what we have just covered within Chapter 3 so far.

In Galatians 3:2., Paul asks if they have received God’s Spirit by the Mosaic Law or by Faith?
Where the correct answer is Faith.

In 3:3., in context, Paul asks them, if they then obtained God’s Spirit by Faith and had begun with The Spirit, how could they think that they could now be made perfect by their own futile human effort and by their religious observance of the Mosaic Law?

We are made perfect by walking in Yeshua, in God’s Spirit and through Him, rather than walking in the Mosaic Law.

In 3:5. Paul questions again, if God has provided you with His Spirit, and now works miracles through you, does He do that because of your observance of the Mosaic Law, or by Faith?
Where again, the correct answer is Faith.

In 3:6-9. Paul now brings Abraham into the conversation to substantiate the difference between Faith and Mosaic Law.
He only mentions Belief and Faith as being the prerequisites for not only obtaining righteousness, but also in maintaining that state of righteousness.
There is no Mosaic Law mentioned within these verses regarding Abraham whatsoever.
(Paul also addresses this same point within Romans 4:9-12.)
Is it any wonder then, why Paul states what he says next?

3:10. For as many as are of the works of the (Mosaic) law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth NOT in all things which are written in the book of the (Mosaic) law to do them. (Deuteronomy 27:26.)

So, if you choose to LIVE by works and the religious observance of the Mosaic Law, you are under a curse, because you must fulfill each and every aspect of the corpus of Mosaic Law that pertains to you, perfectly, (just as Father God would fulfill them Himself. Matthew 5:48.)

3:11. But that no (mere) man is justified by the (Mosaic) law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The JUST shall LIVE by FAITH .
(Habakkuk 2:4., Romans 1:17. & Hebrews 10:38.)

3:12. And the (Mosaic) law is NOT OF FAITH: but, The man that doeth them (the Mosaic Law) shall LIVE in them.

Habakkuk 2:4. reads as;
Behold, his soul which is lifted up is not upright in him: but the JUST shall LIVE by his FAITH.

If THE JUST(ified) shall LIVE by FAITH, and the Mosaic Law is NOT OF FAITH, and no mere man will be justified by the Mosaic Law in the sight of God, then it’s virtually impossible to LIVE in BOTH at the SAME TIME.
Clearly Paul is saying that, if the “Mosaic Law is NOT of Faith”, then LIVING by FAITH is completely different than LIVING by the MOSAIC LAW.

Like Abraham as the prime example that Paul utilizes above, we have a choice to LIVE in the Truth of Yeshua’s Gospel or not.
We either LIVE by our BELIEF and FAITH and are JUSTIFIED like Abraham, or we LIVE by the Mosaic Law, and will NOT be JUSTIFIED.

Hence what Paul states within the very next verse….

3:13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the (Mosaic) law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: (Deuteronomy 21:23.)

The English “redeemed” is derived from the Greek verb “ἐξηγόρασεν” transliterated as “exagorazō”. It is defined in context as, “to redeem, by payment of a price to recover from the power of another, to ransom, buy off, to buy up, to buy up for one's self, for one's use, and as a metaphor as, of Christ freeing the elect from the dominion of the Mosaic Law at the price of his vicarious death”.

Question; If Yeshua provided this redemption for “us” with His death on the Cross, why in heavens name would anyone ever disregard that gift, and observe the Mosaic Law again?

3:14. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through FAITH.

Though it has been implied above, it is here, for the first time within the Book of Galatians, that Paul introduces a third component that is distinct from the Mosaic Law other than Belief and Faith. He now introduces PROMISE.
And Paul expresses what is essentially, a “cause and effect”.

By our Faith and Belief in Yeshua, we have been “redeemed” from the Mosaic Law and its curse, so that the “BLESSING” of Abraham, (being declared Righteous by God) might come upon the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, and that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through FAITH.

This being “REDEEMED” from the CURSE  of the MOSAIC LAW, by Yeshua’s death and RANSOM for us on the Cross, is applicable for both Jew and Gentile that have BELIEF and LIVE in FAITH, (or are only Jewish believers still under the CURSE of the Mosaic Law?) I can assure that they’re NOT.  

Because if the GENTILES have been REDEEMED from the CURSE OF THE LAW, then so have the JEWISH BELIEVERS that LIVE in FAITH, because we are BOTH “NEW SECOND CREATIONS” with NO DIFFERENCE between US at all, (See; Acts 10:36., 15:8,9., Romans 3:22 & 29., 10:12.,
1 Corinthians 12:13., Galatians 3:28. and Colossians 3:11.). We are all simply ONE.
Yeshua died on the Cross to redeem all of mankind that Believe, be they Jew or Gentile from the curse of the Mosaic Law.

Further evidence in respects to there being no difference between the Jew or Gentile that are truly “INYeshua, is what Paul states within Ephesians 2:14-16.;

2:14.“For He is our peace, Who hath made both one, (Yeshua made, the Jew and Gentile one) and hath broken down (lyō – in context, to loose one bound, release from bonds, set free, and do away with) the middle wall o f partition (mesotoichon, phragmos; a wall, hedge or fence, and that which separates, and prevents two from coming together) between us;

So what is this “wall, hedge or fence” that prevented both Jew and Gentile from coming together as ONE?

2:15,16. “Having abolished (katargeō; to render idle, deprive of force, put an end to, do away with, annul, abolish) in His Flesh the enmity, (echthra; cause of hostility, opposition etc.) even the (Mosaic) law of commandments contained in ordinances (dogma; in context, “doctrine, the rules and requirements of the Mosaic Law”); for to make in Himself of twain one new man, so making peace; And that He might reconcile BOTH unto God in one body by the CROSS , having slain (apokteinō; to kill and destroy) the enmity thereby:

Does that leave any question whatsoever, that this “wall, hedge or fence” consists of the Commandments of the Mosaic Law?

And how did Yeshua put an end to and do away with” this “wall, hedge or fence” of the Mosaic Law for BOTH Jew and Gentile, so that IN HIM, it would then make peace and  create one new second born of Spirit creation and one new man?

In verse 15 Paul refers to HIS FLESH, and in verse 16 he refers to the CROSS.

Colossians 2:14.;
Blotting out (exaleiphō; "to obliterate, erase, wipe out") the handwriting (cheirographon; “something hand-written i.e. a manuscript, especially a legal document or bond”) of ordinances (dogma; In context, “doctrine, the rules and requirements of the Mosaic Law”) that was against us, which was contrary to us, (the enmityand took it out of the way, NAILING IT” (with His Flesh) TO HIS CROSS;

Hence the necessity to be “redeemed” from the Mosaic Law, (Galatians 3:13. and 4:5.) by Yeshua’s Death on the Cross.
It is by our Faith and Belief in Him that we are Justified, and granted access to God’s free gift of His Righteousness, where in turn, by our Faith and Belief we receive the Promise of the Spirit.

When we receive God’s Spirit, we become a “new second born creation” this “one new man”, that is born of Spirit, (John 3:6.) whether we were Jew or Gentile we have BOTH become One IN Yeshua, where through this being “Redeemed” from the Mosaic Law, we now have the opportunity to become adoptive sons, (Galatians 4:5) and joint heirs, (Romans 8:17.). 

Again, Yeshua died on the Cross for the Forgiveness of our sins, and so that ALL Faithful Believers be they Jew or Gentile, could also be Redeemed from the curse of the Mosaic Law.    

The Jewish Nation of Israel were a special people among the people of the earth, because God through Moses as the mediator, chose them to be given the Laws through which they had the opportunity to obtain Righteousness, (the transliterated Hebrew “tsĕdaqah” and the Greek “dikaiosynē”).

However, with the Mosaic Law now being implemented and in force, this then creates a double edge sword.
Though Israel now had an opportunity through this Law to obtain Righteousness before a Holy God, it also presented a clear judicial criteria between “life and death”.
The Nation of Israel would either Live before God in Righteousness, or be subjected to Death in Unrighteousness. (Deuteronomy 30:15,19.)
  
The Mosaic Law also creates a paradox. Because if the Jewish Nation as a whole were successful in this endeavour, then not only would they have attained “their own righteousness” where the necessity for Divine Intervention and a Saving Messiah would have then become needless, but the result of that would also be, that all of the Gentiles of the world would be lost as well.

But, since these LAWS couldn’t nullify God’s previously made Promise, and Scripture states in Galatians 3:11.,“That no (mere) man will be justified, (dikaioō; or declared to be righteous) in the eyes of God through the Mosaic Law”, that then left that Jewish Nation in quite the conundrum.
Where the only possible solution would be, Divine Intervention on their behalf, and the necessity of a Saving Messiah. Hence the paradox.

And before Yeshua was even born, God had already decreed that Yeshua would be sought by the Gentiles as a Light, (Isaiah 11:10., 42:6., 49:6., etc.) which logically can then only mean, that it was never God’s intention for the Jewish Nation to ever actually be successful and attain their own righteousness in the first place.

So, if the Mosaic Law was an instrument through which MAN could obtain Righteousness, but “no (mere) man will be justified in the eyes of God through the Mosaic Law”…..
“Then WHO ALONE was the Mosaic Law for?”

If Yeshua as MAN fulfilled the Mosaic Law perfectly and completely and attained a RIGHTEOUSNESS that would be sufficient enough to be accepted by our Holy God, then that would solve the paradox. And not only Jews, but Gentiles as well, in being granted access to this sufficient RIGHTEOUSNESS by Faith, would be accepted by a Holy God as well.

If the Mosaic Law was meant only for Yeshua to fulfill as Man, as the Second Adam, then this would also explain “why” for mere man, Paul states in
1 Corinthians 15:6.; The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the (Mosaic) law.
And why the “Mosaic Law is the Law of sin and death”, in Romans 8:2., and how we’ve been “freed and Redeemed” from the Mosaic Law, by the tôwrâh of the Spirit of life in Yeshua. “For the law (tôwrâh) of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the (Mosaic) law of sin and death.
       
The Lord God does state Himself, (over a 100 times) that HE IS the REDEEMER, DELIVERER, SALVATION and SAVIOUR, so the redemption and reconciliation of mankind, simply couldn’t have been orchestrated through the Mosaic Law by “any mere man”.

Well Yeshua WASN’T a mere man!
He was “Father God in the Flesh”, (John 1:1. and 14., 1 Timothy 3:16.) and the “very Image of Father God”, (2 Corinthians 4:4., Colossians 1:15.).
Therefore the Mosaic Law as an instrument for RIGHTEOUSNESS, was meant solely for HIM.

It was easy for Yeshua, being filled with God’s Spirit, to attain Righteousness and be Justified through the Mosaic Law in the eyes of His Father, since He also understood the scope of that Law, and was the ONLY MAN to ever be declared to be Without Spot, Blemish or Sin.

Thus, Yeshua was Perfect, just as Father God is Perfect, (Matthew 5:48.) and the SECOND ADAM repaired the damage that was caused by the FIRST Adam. (Amen.)

Yet, the Mosaic Law was ONLY to be in effect for RighteousnessUNTILYeshua was manifest as God Promised, where HE then not only Fulfilled the Mosaic Law, but also Redeemed us from that Law on our behalf, (a component of Matthew 5:17. and with Deuteronomy 6:25. being replaced by Romans 10:4.).
Where Paul confirms the “UNTIL” aspect of the above statement, in verse 3:19. of this epistle.

However, the Mosaic Law is still in effect for All unbelieving mankind for JUDGEMENT!

The FACT that Paul tells the Gentile Churches of Galatia that Yeshua has “Redeemedthem from the Mosaic Law, obviously means that before these individuals had been called by God, and had found Faith and Belief in Yeshua as their Saviour, they as unbeliever's, (whether they possessed the knowledge or not) were under the Mosaic Law, and the ensuing consequences that would be associated with breaking just one of those Mosaic Law’s, (James 2:10,11.).

The DIVINE are a HOLY and RIGHTEOUS JUDGE, and something must be utilized as a HOLY and RIGHTEOUS CRITERIA for that JUDGEMENT.
And the MOSAIC LAW is that CRITERIA.

Matthew 5:18.;
For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the "LAW", till all be fulfilled.

Again, though the above verse may appear to be relatively straightforward, its scope is much deeper than what we might initially perceive on the surface. (i.e. Amos 3:7.)

The “LAW” that Yeshua refers to is, (like Matthew 5:17.) also multifaceted and NOT singular.

This “LAW” would not only be referring to the Mosaic Law, but would also consist of All of God’s tôwrâh, like the Promised Blessings to the people of the earth, through Yeshua’s yet to be accomplished Finished Work on the Cross, as well as Everything that Yeshua said, that He was told to say by Father God to His disciple’s, (which includes us) and was confirmed by His apostle’s within New Second Covenant text. Also to all prophecy that is yet to take place etc.. This “LAW” would encompass ALL of Father God’s tôwrâh.

Nevertheless, in respects to the Mosaic Law and Judgement, let’s look at Romans 2:12.;
For as many as have sinned without (Mosaiclaw shall also perish without LAW: and as many as have sinned in the (Mosaiclaw shall be judged by the (Mosaic) law;

Now the 1st. English “without (Mosaiclaw” was derived from the Greek adverb “ἀνόμως” transliterated as “anomōs”.
Anomōs is simply defined as, “without the law, without the knowledge of the law, and (to sin in ignorance of the Mosaic law).”

And though the 2nd. “without LAW” is derived from the exact same Greek adverb, I believe that Paul is perhaps referring to God’s tôwrâh.

Though it is entirely possible that in the 2nd. instance Paul is also referring to “not having any knowledge of the Mosaic Law”, the problem that I see here is, that Paul is also aware, “that nobody will be justified in God’s eyes by the Mosaic Law, because the Mosaic Law is beyond the capacity of any mere man to fulfill perfectly”.
And as well, “Because the Mosaic Law DOESN’T SAVE” any mere man from perishing!”

Therefore I believe, that Romans 2:12. could have possibly been rendered in a more contemporary language, and in context as;

“For all of the Gentiles that have sinned, without having any knowledge of the Mosaic Law, (and who haven’t Believed and had Faith in Yeshua so He could redeem and ransom them from it) will perish in ignorance of the “ Promise of Yeshua as their Saviour”:
And all of the Jews that have sinned while in the Mosaic Law (and who haven’t Believed and had Faith in Yeshua so He could redeem and ransom them from it) will be judged by the Mosaic Law.”

Either way, without the Belief and Faith in Yeshua as THE SAVIOUR, there is NO Grace, NO Access to God’s Free Gift of HIS Righteousness, No Reconciliation and NO Salvation. WITHOUT YESHUA..... ALL will PERISH.

Those that haven’t been redeemed are all of those that HAVEN’T believed in Him or have believed but have “rejected, disregarded and denied” the Grace of God by believing it is necessary to religiously observe the Mosaic Law.
And THEY (whether they are Jew or Gentile), will all be judged BY that Mosaic Law.

Romans 3:19,20.;
Now we know that what things soever the (Mosaic) law saith, it saith to them who are under the (Mosaic) law: that every mouth may be stopped, and ALL THE WORLD may become GUILTY before God. Therefore by the deeds (ergon; works) of the (Mosaic) law there shall no flesh be justified (dikaioō; declared righteous) in His sight: for by the (Mosaic) law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the (Mosaic) law is manifested, (Yeshua) being witnessed by the (tôwrâh) LAW and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

The English “without” above, is a completely different word than the “without” in verse Romans 2:12.. 
Here it is derived from the Greek adverb “χωρὶς” or “chōris”.
Chōris is defined as, “separately or apart from, beside, by itself, and without”.

By FAITH, the Righteousness of God is now manifested through YESHUA, (separate and without the Mosaic Law) upon all that believe, whether Jew or Gentile, for there is no difference.

Romans 10:4.;
For Christ is the end (telos; end, termination, consummation) of the (Mosaic) law for righteousness (dikaiosynē; righteousness, God's judicial approval, the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain (and maintain) a state approved of God) to everyone that believeth.
(i.e. John 14:6.)

We gain access (Romans 5:2.) to this “righteousness” by Grace as a Free Gift, by our Faith and Belief in Yeshua and by Trusting in God’s Promise.
We maintain this position of "righteousness" by walking in the Spirit and our Faith and Belief in Yeshua and by Trusting in God's Promise.

Paul has full knowledge of the mystery of Yeshua, (2 Corinthians 12:1-7.) and he is warning the Galatians that if they religiously observe the Mosaic Law again, then they are “disregarding and nullifying” this Grace, and therefore also “eliminating their access” to this righteousness.

Continuing with Galatians 3:15..

3:15. Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.

Or, “Brothers, speaking as a man, just the same as it is in our life now, when we make a covenant, (Last Will and Testament) which has been proven to be valid, it’s irrevocable, and no man can make any amendments to it at all. The same principle applies here.”

3:16. Now to Abraham and his Seed (genealogical future Child) were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, (his descendants) as of many; but as of One, And to thy Seed, (God’s Child) which is Christ.

3:17. And this I say, that the covenant, (that God made with Abraham) that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the (Mosaic) law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.

Or, “What I am saying is this: If when we make a covenant it is irrevocable, then the Covenant that God made with Abraham is even more so.
That Promise that God made to Abraham regarding Christ, can’t be annulled and made invalid simply because He gave Moses the Law 430 years afterward. If that were true, then God would be BREAKING HIS PROMISE.”

3:18. For if the inheritance be of the (Mosaic) law, it is NO MORE of PROMISE: but God gave it to Abraham by PROMISE.

Or, and to expand on the fulness of what Paul is expressing;
“For if the inheritance (The Eternal Kingdom of God, granted through His free gift of Righteousness IN Yeshua) could have been obtained by mere man by the observance of the Mosaic Law, then that would be the result of mere man’s works and of their own human effort, and NOT of Divine Intervention. And if that were even possible, then “Salvation” wouldn’t be the result of God’s Promise, and Christ would have died in vain.
But God made His Covenant of PROMISE to “The Eternal Kingdom through Christ” to Abraham, 430 years before the Mosaic Law.
And that PROMISE is IRREVOCABLE!”

Now Paul addresses the reason for the Mosaic Law

3:19. Wherefore then serveth the (Mosaic) law? It was added because of transgressions, TILLthe SEED (God’s Child, Yeshua) should come to whom the promise was made; and "it" (the Mosaic Law) was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.

Or, “What purpose did the Mosaic Law serve then? It was added to show people their sins.
But the Mosaic Law was intended for this purpose only “ UNTIL” the SEED, God’s Child Yeshua came and the PROMISE was fulfilled. (another component of Matthew 5:17.) God gave His Law to Moses through angels, and Moses was the mediator between God and the people.”

3:20. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is One.

Or, in context with the narrative, “Now the use of a mediator like Moses was required, because the Law was a covenant and agreement between God and many people. But God is One, and Abraham was one, and He didn’t require a mediator when He made His Covenant of PROMISE with Abraham. So God swore an oath by Himself.”

3:21. Is the (Mosaic) law then against the promises of God? God forbid: forIFthere had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the (Mosaic) law.

Or, “Is the Mosaic Law contrary to the Promises of God then? Never may it be!
If Moses had been given a Law which could have truly provided mere man life, then righteousness would have been by the Mosaic Law.”

3:22. BUT the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by Faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that Believe.

Or, “However, the Scriptures state that every mere man is a sinner, so that God’s Promise and His Free Gift of Righteousness, would be given to those that Believe and have Faith in Jesus Christ.”

3:23. But before FAITH came, we were kept under the (Mosaic) law, shut up unto the FAITH which should afterwards be revealed.

Or, “But before the appointed time where we could have FAITH in the Finished work of Christ on the Cross, all of mankind was kept under the Mosaic Law. Being in custody of the Law UNTIL” the opportunity to have FAITH in Jesus Christ was made available and revealed.”

3:24. Wherefore the ( Mosaic) law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by FAITH.

Or, “Therefore, the Mosaic Law was like our guardian (or schoolmaster) that helped to protect us “UNTILChrist came, where then through Christ, we could be Justified and made Righteous by our FAITH.”

3:25. But AFTER THAT FAITH (CHRIST) IS COME, "we" are NO LONGER under a schoolmaster ( Mosaic Law).

Or, “So now, since Christ has come, and we BELIEVE and have FAITH in HIM, we have been redeemed from the Mosaic Law.
We no longer require the old guardian (or schoolmaster).”

3:36. For ye are ALL the CHILDREN of GOD by FAITH in CHRIST JESUS.

Or, “Because, by your BELIEF and FAITH in CHRIST JESUS, you are ALL the CHILDREN of GOD.

3:37. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Or, “Since all of you have been washed and cleansed in Christ with baptism, and you have put on new garments in Christ.
Therefore Christ is your Mediator and High Priest now.”

3:38. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

Or, “Therefore In Christ, there isn’t any difference between a Jew or a Greek anymore. There isn’t any difference if you are a slave or if you are free. There isn’t any difference between a male or a female either, because you are all One Body in Christ Jesus.”

3:39. And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.

Or, “And if you belong to Christ, then like Christ and Isaac were Abraham’s seed, you are also the true children of Abraham.
And you are also heirs, according to the Covenant of Promise that God made with Abraham.”

Galatians, Chapter 4.:

Paul continues speaking of “Promise” as opposed to the “Mosaic Law”, and utilizes a story of a “child” to illustrate what he is saying regarding the “schoolmaster” reference that he made in verses 3:24,25..

4:1. Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;

4:2. But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed of the father.

Or, “Let me explain with this illustration. When someone is a child, they are under supervision. Though they may very well be the heir and will end up owning all that their father owned and be the lord of all, they are also like a servant.
As a child they have guardians (schoolmaster’s) to watch over and protect them, and they had to do everything that they were told to do by those (schoolmaster’s) that were responsible for that child.
However, this relationship doesn’t last forever.
Whenever the child reaches the age that has been appointed by his father, he then becomes a young man. He doesn’t have to obey the guardians (schoolmaster’s) anymore and the guardians (schoolmaster's) are released of their responsibility of the child.”

4:3. Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:

The English elements of the world is recorded in the Morphological Greek text as,
“στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου” or “stoicheia tou kosmou”.
Stoicheia is defined primarily as, “rudiments, (first principles, limited to basic principles) elements, primary and fundamental principles of any art, science, or discipline and kosmou - (literally, "something ordered") – properly, an "ordered system" (like the natural) universe, creation); or the world.

However before we continue, here are some questions….
Why did Paul include the story of a child being under tutors and governors (guardians or schoolmaster's)?”
“And “what” is Paul referring to when he says, when we were children in verse 4:3.?”

The reason that Paul included this illustration, is simply because it is an analogy.
And he provided it with the hopes that it would further clarify what he had just previously expressed. This illustration is all relevant to the previous text, regarding Faith in Christ, and the schoolmaster or Mosaic Law.

Paul utilized the fact that in his day, many young children had guardians who were responsible for protecting and raising them. And the child was to be obedient to whomever their parents had placed them in custody to, UNTIL that child became of age to where they NO LONGER required a schoolmaster, or guardian anymore.

In context then, when Paul says to the Galatians, (and us) “when we were children” he is NOT referring back to “their or our” literal childhood.
Instead, he is using the term figuratively and referring to “their and our” state, “before FAITH came”, before Christ and His Finished Work.

When we were children, before we could have FAITH in the Finished Work of CHRIST on the Cross, “we” were in bondage under guardianship.
We were under the schoolmaster, the Mosiac Law!

“So, “what” is Paul referring to then, when he says, elements of the world ?”
If the above isn’t quite sufficient enough for some, and the answer isn’t obvious, let’s answer that question by going back to Galatians 3:23. again, to where we are at presently;

3:23. But before FAITH ( CHRIST) came, we were kept under the (Mosaic) law, shut up unto the FAITH ( CHRIST) which should afterwards be revealed ( CHRIST’S Finished Work).
3:24. Wherefore the “( Mosaic) law was our schoolmaster ( guardian)” to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by FAITH.
3:25. But AFTER THAT FAITH ( CHRIST’S Finished Work ) IS COME, we are NO LONGER under a schoolmaster (Mosaic Law).
3:36. For ye are ALL the CHILDREN of GOD BY FAITH in CHRIST JESUS.
3:37. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.
3:38. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
3:39. And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.
4:1. Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;
4:2. But is under tutors and governors (schoolmasters, the Mosaic Law) UNTIL the time appointed of the father.
(or UNTIL FAITH, in CHRIST’S Finished Work was revealed.)
4:3. Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:

Is there anyone that is still not able to make the connection yet?
Is it really necessary to continue?

In 3:23. Paul says that mankind was kept under the Mosaic Law before the opportunity to have FAITH in YESHUA’S Finished Work was made available.

In 3:24. he says that the Mosaic Law was the equivalent to our schoolmaster or guardian, which would watch over us UNTIL we could be Justified and made Righteous by our FAITH in YESHUA.

Therefore in 3:25. Paul says that after YESHUA has come and has Finished His Work on the Cross, and “we” have BELIEF and FAITH in that Finished Work, WE are NO LONGER UNDER the SCHOOLMASTER or GUARDIAN, which as per verse 3:24. again, is the “equivalent to the MOSAIC LAW”.

In context then, the “ ELEMENTS OF THE WORLD” is simply an expression that Paul utilized, to denote THE MOSAIC LAW.
The Mosaic Law also consists of being “an ordered system of primary and fundamental principles”.

Therefore 4:3. could have very well been rendered as;
Even so, BEFORE WE COULD HAVE FAITH IN CHRIST’S FINISHED WORK ON THE CROSS, we were children and servants in bondage under our SCHOOLMASTER the first and basic principles of the MOSAIC LAW.

Again, remember the context of this epistle. Paul isn’t attempting to convert the Galatians, they already have FAITH and BELIEVE in YESHUA.
They have also already received The SPIRIT as well, and have witnessed the miracles of The SPIRIT. So they would be convinced by now in their BELIEF and FAITH and would NOT be returning back to their old pagan ways.

Remember as well, everything that Paul has addressed previously.
He started by speaking of his authority as a Divine messenger, and chastised the Galatians for turning away from God and from the Grace of Christ that God had called them to, by practicing a different gospel.
The Galatians still had FAITH and BELIEF but they had been sidetracked, bewitched and charmed into believing that something other than what Paul had taught them was necessary.

Paul speaks of his former life as Saul and his life within Judaism and after his conversion to having FAITH and BELIEF in Yeshua and being baptized, he includes the time frames that he hadn’t attended Jerusalem for a reason. Those time frames of 3 and 14 years of absence weren’t provided arbitrarily.

If he was still observant to the Mosaic Law, he would have been bound by Mosaic Law, to be present in Jerusalem three times each year.
However, he provides those time lines because they are relevant to what we will address shortly in verse 4:10.

Paul also speaks of what transpired at the Council of Jerusalem and calls those who said that it was necessary for followers of Yeshua to be circumcised and to religiously observe the Mosaic Law, “false brethren” and chastises Peter, and the rest of Yeshua’s followers for being guilty of the same.
The content of this whole epistle, is about the distinction between Belief, Faith and Promise as opposed to the religious observance of Mosaic Law.

And to simply confirm that the elements of the world and the Mosaic Law are one in the same, Paul now refers back to YESHUA, (WHO Is the Fulfillment of PROMISE) and the Mosaic Law again.

4:4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made UNDER the (MOSAIC) LAW,
4:5. To REDEEM them that WERE UNDER the (MOSAIC) LAW, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

And again, the English “redeemed” here, is derived from the Greek verb “ἐξηγόρασεν” transliterated as “exagorazō”.
It is defined in context as, “to redeem, by payment of a price to recover from the power of another, to ransom, buy off, to buy up, to buy up for one's self, for one's use, and metaphorically as, of Christ freeing the elect from the dominion of the Mosaic Law at the price of his vicarious death”.

Now, please allow for me to record for you, the more contemporary language interpretations that I have provided above from 3:15. forward, with the hopes of offering a clear understanding regarding what Paul says, before we proceed further.

“Brothers, speaking as a man, just the same as it is in our life now, when we make a covenant (Last Will and Testament) which has been proven to be valid, it’s irrevocable, and no man can make any amendments to it at all. The same principle applies here.

What I am saying is this: If when we make a covenant it is irrevocable, then the Covenant that God made with Abraham is even more so.
That Promise that God made to Abraham regarding Christ, can’t be annulled and made invalid simply because He gave Moses the Law 430 years afterward. If that were true, then God would be BREAKING HIS PROMISE.

For "if" the inheritance (The Eternal Kingdom of God) could have been obtained by mere man by the observance of the Mosaic Law, then that would be the result of mere man’s works and of their own human effort, and NOT of Divine Intervention.

And if that were even possible, then “SalvationWOULDN’T be the result of God’s PROMISE, and Christ would have died in vain.
But God made His Covenant of PROMISE to “The Eternal Kingdom through Christ” to Abraham, 430 years before the Mosaic Law.
And that PROMISE is IRREVOCABLE!

What purpose did the Mosaic Law serve then? It was added to show people their sins.
But the Mosaic Law was intended for this purpose only UNTIL the SEED, God’s Child Yeshua came and the PROMISE was fulfilled.
(another component of Matthew 5:17.)
God gave His Law to Moses through angels, and Moses was the mediator between God and the people.

Now the use of a mediator like Moses was required, because the Law was a covenant and agreement between God and many people.
But God is One, and Abraham was one, and He didn’t require a mediator when He made His Covenant of PROMISE with Abraham.
So God swore an oath by Himself.

Is the Mosaic Law contrary to the Promises of God then? Never may it be!
If Moses had been given a Law which could have truly provided mere man life, then righteousness would have been by the Mosaic Law.

However, the Scriptures state that every mere man is a sinner, so that God’s Promise and His Free Gift of Righteousness, would be given to those that Believe and have Faith in Jesus Christ.

Before the appointed time where we could have FAITH in the Finished work of Christ on the Cross, all of mankind was kept under the Mosaic Law. Being in custody of the Law UNTIL” the opportunity to have FAITH in Jesus Christ was made available and revealed.

Therefore, the Mosaic Law was like our guardian (or schoolmaster) that helped to protect us “ UNTILChrist came, where then through Christ, we could be Justified and made Righteous by our FAITH.”

So now, since Christ has come, and He has Finished His Work on the Cross, and we BELIEVE and have FAITH in HIM, we have been redeemed from the Mosaic Law. We No Longer require the old guardian (or schoolmaster).

Because, by your BELIEF and FAITH in CHRIST JESUS, you are ALL the CHILDREN of GOD.
Since all of you have been washed and cleansed in Christ with baptism, and you have put on new garments in Christ.
Therefore Christ is your Mediator and High Priest now.

Therefore In Christ, there isn’t any difference between a Jew or a Greek anymore. There isn’t any difference if you are a slave or if you are free. There isn’t any difference between a male or a female either, because you are all One Body in Christ Jesus.

And if you belong to Christ, then like Christ and Isaac were Abraham’s seed, you are also the true children of Abraham. And you are also heirs, according to the Covenant of Promise that God made with Abraham.

Let me explain with this illustration. When someone is a child, they are under supervision. Though they may very well be the heir and will end up owning all that their father owned and be the lord of all, they are also like a servant.
As a child they have guardians (schoolmaster’s) to watch over and protect them, and they had to do everything that they were told to do by those (schoolmaster’s) that were responsible for that child.
However, this relationship doesn’t last forever.
Whenever the child reaches the age that has been appointed by his father, he then becomes a young man.
He doesn’t have to obey the guardians (schoolmaster’s) anymore and the guardians (schoolmaster's) are released of their responsibility of the child.

4:3. Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:
4:4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made UNDER the (MOSAIC) LAW,
4:5. To REDEEM them that WERE UNDER the (MOSAIC) LAW, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

Or, “Just like those children were in bondage under their guardians, we were in bondage and servants and slaves to our guardian, our schoolmaster, the Mosaic Law.

But when Father God had decided that the fulness of time had come, He sent His Son Yeshua, born of a woman, and born UNDER the Mosaic Law, so that He could REDEEM those that were also UNDER the MOSAIC LAW, by payment with His LIFE, so that we might also receive the PROMISE of the adoption of sons.”

(The English PROMISE above being warranted by the definition of the Greek verb “ἀπολάβωμεν” transliterated as “apolabōmen”, to receive, what is due or promised.)

Now here is something that I believe, needs to be taken into consideration….

“It clearly appears that one of the Blessings that Yeshua’s death provided for us, was to redeem us from the Mosaic Law SO” we could then receive the PROMISE of the adoption of sons… “Then what would be the consequence of choosing instead to observe the Mosaic Law?”

Wouldn’t that mean you are practicing a different gospel, and by doing so, have nullified and made void the Grace of God and have by your demonstrated behaviour eliminated that possibility to be adopted?

I believe that when we come to those pertinent verses of 4:21-31. which are relevant to that last question, many will understand what the consequences are.

Many will also understand my concern and why I have taken the time to do this as well. These passages are critical as a “key” to understanding whether it is necessary for “US” as believers, to “walk in the Mosaic Law” or “Walk in the Spirit by Faith”.

Continuing….

4:6. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.
4:7. Wherefore thou art NO MORE a SERVANT, but a son; and if a son , then an heir of God through Christ.

Or, “Having then been REDEEMED from the Mosaic Law, the elements of the world, and NO LONGER children that are under that old schoolmaster and guardianship, but instead, having reached the age appointed by Father God through your FAITH and BELIEF in YESHUA, you have now become children of Promise and the true children of Abraham, and therefore adopted sons.

And because you are sons, Father God has sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying ABBA, Father. Therefore you are NO LONGER a servant or a slave to the Mosaic Law, but a son through Promise; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ as well.”

(Paul basically states the same sentiment within Romans 8:14-17.;

For as many as are LED BY THE SPIRIT of GOD, THEY ARE THE SONS OF GOD. For ye have NOT received the spirit of bondage again to fear; BUT ye have received the SPIRIT OF ADOPTION, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. THE SPIRIT itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with Him, that we may be also glorified together.

The English “LED” above is derived from the Greek verb “ἄγονται” or “agontai” which is defined in context as, “to lead, to take with one, to impel, (to drive, force or urge (someone) to do something) of forces and influences affecting the mind”.

Therefore, IF the actual sons of God have received the Spirit of Adoption and are now LED by God’s Spirit, where that Spirit bears witness with our spirit as being children of God, and joint-heirs with Christ to the point that we can cry out to Father God as Daddy, then conversely, if you are LED by the spirit of bondage and slavery AGAIN by observing the Mosaic Law, it should place you in a position of fear, because none of the above would be applicable to you.)

Below I will record verses 4:8. through 12. as simply a paragraph;
Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods. But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?
Ye observe DAYS, and MONTHS, and TIMES, and YEARS. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye are: ye have NOT injured me at all.

(Previously, and from 4:5-7.;
Just like those children were in bondage under their guardians, we were in bondage and servants and slaves to our guardian, our schoolmaster, the Mosaic Law.
But when Father God had decided that the fulness of time had come, He sent His Son Yeshua, born of a woman, and born UNDER the Mosaic Law, so that He could REDEEM those that were also UNDER the MOSAIC LAW, by payment with His LIFE on the Cross, so that we might receive the PROMISE of the adoption of sons.

Having then been REDEEMED from the Mosaic Law, the elements of the world, and NO LONGER children that are under that old schoolmaster and guardianship, but instead, having reached the age appointed by Father God through your FAITH and BELIEF in YESHUA, you have now become children of Promise and the true children of Abraham, and therefore adopted sons.
And because you are sons, Father God has sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying ABBA, Father. Therefore you are NO LONGER a servant or a slave to the Mosaic Law, but a son through Promise; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ as well.)

Continuing with 4:8-12. in the fulness of what is being expressed;
Before I had told you the Gospel, and you weren’t even aware of the One True God, and before you were called by Him to the Grace of Christ, all of you were pagans and were slaves to things which you know now, weren’t gods.
But now that you know God and have been blessed with His Spirit, (or rather that God knows you now) I just don’t understand “why” you would want to be slaves in bondage to anything again, especially by returning to the “weak and powerless first principles” that you’ve been redeemed from?
Those that have bewitched you into following a different gospel, have you observing days, months, seasons and years now.
I am really concerned and afraid for you, and I feel that all of my time and effort in you has perhaps been in vain.
Look my brothers, and I’m pleading with you now, walk as you have seen me walk.
Because I walk like you used to walk when you first Believed and had Faith before you were bewitched, and that hasn’t caused me any harm at all.”

Again, I’d like you to remember the context of this epistle.
Paul isn’t attempting to convert the Galatians, they already have FAITH and BELIEVE in YESHUA. They have also already received the SPIRIT and have witnessed the miracles of the SPIRIT as well. So they would NOT be returning back to their old pagan ways.

The Galatians still had FAITH and BELIEF but they had been sidetracked and bewitched into believing that something other than what Paul had taught them was necessary.

And since we know that the only people on the face of the earth that would promote the practice of circumcision, would be Jews, one can conclude simply by the process of mere common sense, that it was a Jewish individual or individuals that were responsible for this bewitching that took place.  
Therefore the whole content of this epistle, is about the distinction between Belief, Faith and Promise as opposed to the religious observance of the Mosaic Law.

But what exactly is the problem that Paul sees here? Why is he so concerned that he says that he is afraid for them, and worried that all of his effort and labour ( kopiaō; to labour with wearisome effort, to toil has possibly been in vain  ( eikē; without purpose, without success)?
If Grace is unconditional, why would he have any fears or concerns at all?
 
I personally Believe in YESHUA as my SAVIOUR and with that, I LIVE by FAITH and in FREEDOM. And if I wished to share in the experience of celebrating a Passover Seder with some of my fellow brothers and sisters, I am at LIBERTY to do so, (and Paul wouldn’t be concerned at all).
So, why is he so afraid for the Galatians then?

Within my introduction I had said, that Paul is addressing and contending with the specific motivations behind what the Galatians are doing, as well as the ensuing consequences that would be associated with that practice. Therefore it is reasonable to conclude, that the context regarding verse 4:10., (keeping in mind that the only people on the face of the earth that would promote the act of circumcision would be Jews), is that the “days, months, seasons and years” would be referring to “times” that are to be religiously observed as specified by the Mosaic Law.

This would also be “why”, Paul chose to record and include the time frames of, “three years” and “fourteen years” in Galatians 1:18. & 2:1. where he didn’t attend and was absent from Jerusalem. For it establishes the point that “he himself” is not concerned nor does he believe that it is necessary, to observe any “days, months, seasons or years” that are dictated to be observed by the Mosaic Law.

Because Paul walks like the Galatians used to walk when they first Believed and had Faith before they were bewitched, and that hasn’t caused Paul any harm at all. (i.e. vs. 4:12.)

With that understanding, let’s look a bit closer at verse 4:10. which would be some of what the Galatians are now practicing that has Paul concerned and afraid for them.

4:10. Ye OBSERVE days, and months, and times (kairous; seasons), and years.

Though correctly translated as “ye observe” above, many times the full meaning of what is being said, can be lost in translation.
Ye observe was derived from the Greek verb “παρατηρεῖσθε” transliterated as “paratēreisthe”, which is primarily defined as, “to watch assiduously, observe carefully” and “to observe, keep scrupulously i.e. to neglect nothing requisite to the religious observance of”.

Simply by what is expressed within the definitions above, an individual wouldn’t conduct themselves in such a zealous fashion if they didn’t believe that it was necessary to do so.

However, with its root word being “παρατηρέω” or “paratēreō”, from “παρα - pará, from close-beside" and “τηρέω - tēréō, carefully watch” it is also properly defined as, “to closely watch with great personal interest ; and to scrupulously observe to ENSURE final SUCCESS”."

Which, based upon the underlined therefore means, that verse 4:10. could have very well have been rendered as;
You are trying to JUSTIFY yourselves to ENSURE your place in God’s Kingdom, and GAIN APPROVAL from God by observing certain days, months, seasons and years!

Paul is afraid and concerned for the Galatians, because though they had begun in the Spirit, they are now trying to make themselves perfect through the flesh, (i.e. Galatians 3:3.).
The Galatians are trying to maintain their position of Righteousness by religiously observing the Mosaic Law again.
Something that Yeshua had died to redeem them from.

The Mosaic Law WAS mere man’s means for obtaining Righteousness, (Deuteronomy 6:25.).
Yeshua IS now the ONLY means for mere man to obtain Righteousness, (Romans 10:4.), and walking in Faith in the Spirit, is the ONLY way to maintain our granted position.

God’s PROMISE to Abraham that Paul utilizes previously, is derived from the Greek feminine noun “ἐπαγγελία” transliterated as “epaggelia”.
Epaggelia is defined in context as, “an announcement, the act of promising, a promise given, a pledge; And having come from God Himself, especially a Divine assurance of good.”

Therefore, if the Galatians were now, religiously observing the Mosaic Law, then by their demonstrated behaviour, they were NOT exhibiting their TRUST and FAITH in God’s Promise.
Instead, they were trying to justify themselves to ensure their place in God’s Kingdom and gain approval from God. Where in actuality, they were “nullifying and making voidGod’s Grace.

We still have the opportunity to gain approval before God though, however these opportunities consist of new criteria as opposed to the Mosaic Law.
We know that Father God spoke through Yeshua our Lord and Saviour, (Deuteronomy 18:15., 18,19., John 3:34., 8:26.,28. & 47.,12:49,50.,14:10.,24., 17:8. & Hebrews 1:1,2.) therefore, Father God’s tôwrâh - direction and instruction” for us to maintain our position of Righteousness which He has provided for us FREELY, by our FAITH and BELIEF, would consist of Loving God, with all of our heart, mind, soul and strength, and Loving our neighbour as ourselves. This is the (Royal) LAW of CHRIST.

Hence, Matthew 22:37-40., Mark 12:29-33., Luke 10:27. and John 13:34,35., 15:12. and 15:17. 
(The word “Commandments” in say John 14:15., 14:21. and 15:10. for example, have nothing to do with the Mosaic Law, other than Leviticus 19:18.
This is evident and substantiated simply by what YESHUA SAYS, which would be what FATHER GOD SAYS, in John 15:12. and 15:17.)

This is then verified in numerous verses and passages, including by Paul in Romans 13:9,10., & Galatians 5:14., and by James in James 2:8.

Continuing….

4:13. Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I preached the gospel unto you at the first.

Or, “You remember that when I first came to you to preach the Gospel, that I was sick.”

4:14. And my temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected; but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.

Or, “And though I was sick, and there was something wrong with my eyes, you didn’t turn me away or reject me at all. Instead you received me and cared for me like I was an angel of God, or even as Christ Jesus Himself.”

4:15. Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to me.

Or, “Where now is the joy and happiness that you extended to me then? For I can remember, that if it were possible, many of you would have plucked your own eyes out, and compassionately given them to me.”

4:16. Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?

Or, “Have I become your enemy now, simply because I’m telling you the truth?”

4:17. THEY zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you, that ye might affect THEM.

Or, “The false brothers that have sought you out and bewitched you, those that have taught you this different gospel, they don’t have your best interests at heart and have taught you a lie. They seriously wish to exclude me from you, and have you listen to only them.”

4:18. But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present with you.

Or, “But, it’s good to strive after what is genuine, and you should always do this, rather than simply doing so only when I am present with you.”

4:19. My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,

Or, “My little children, who I am striving in anguish to conform to the mind of Christ,”

4:20. I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice; for I stand in doubt of you.

Or, “I wish that I could be with all of you right now, so I could change my tone of voice in what I am writing to you here. Because as it stands right now, you have me totally perplexed. I’m full of doubt for you all, and really don’t know what to do?”

Now, before Paul offers up to the Galatians (and us) what he would have sincerely hoped would be a remedy for what he believes to be an insurmountable problem, I would like to provide some “food for thought” before we continue.

The following would be the reason as to why I am absolutely confident in what I have written, and provided so far.

When the Mosaic Law was still fully in effect, and was the only available means at the time for mere man to obtain any form of righteousness, God says through Isaiah in Isaiah 51:1,2.;

Hearken to me, ye that follow (râdaph: pursue) after righteousness, ye that seek the LORD: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged. Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you: for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him.

Now “why” would God provide this “direction and instruction, or tôwrâh” for us who seek and desire the LORD, to pursue righteousness through Abraham and Sarah?

For one, recording these verses most certainly, fulfills Amos 3:7.;
Surely the Lord GOD will do nothing, but he revealeth His secret unto his servants the prophets.

Nevertheless, clearly the Divine is stating that apart from the Mosaic Law, there is an alternative means for mere man to obtain righteousness, and it has something to do with Abraham and Sarah.

I suspect that everyone is familiar with Abraham.
Abram, “אַבְרָם”, transliterated as “'Avram”, means “Exalted Father”.
Sarai, “שָׂרַי”, transliterated as “Saray”, means “Princess”.

Abraham, “אַבְרָהָם”, transliterated as “'Avraham”, means “Father of Multitudes, or Nations”.
Sarah, “שָׂרָה”, transliterated as “Sarah”, means, (as per, Gen. 17:16), “Princess of Multitudes, or Nations”.
However, I am also quite sure, that most aren’t fully aware of the depth and scope of his story.

Are you perhaps aware, (as per Amos 3:7) that if God didn’t change Abram’s name to Abraham, that verses such as “Isaiah 11:10., 42:6., 49:6., etc.” would have never come to fruition?

The story of Abraham takes place in the Book of Genesis, which many would generalize and refer to as being in TORAH.
We are first introduced to Abram in Genesis 11:26., as being a descendant of Shem, (which is the lineage through which Yeshua was ultimately born) and being the son of Terah. And the historical account of Abram’s/Abraham’s life, continues through and up to Genesis 25:10. with his death and burial.

Now some time ago in the past, (though I’m not aware as to when, or who this exact individual was per say) God blessed a believer of Yeshua’s through His Holy Spirit with a significant Revelation. The Spirit revealed to them that what is recorded within Genesis 22:1-19. was a symbolic foreshadowing of an event that was to take place in the future.

Though many of you are probably more than aware of what this revelation consisted of, for those that aren’t, please allow for me to briefly provide what it consists of below.

Within these verses, Abraham was a “type” of God the Father who was willing to offer in sacrifice, his son of promise and only heir.
And Isaac was a “type” of Yeshua, and a symbolic foreshadowing of God the Fathers Son of Promise and only Heir.

Though Ishmael was firstborn and had by this time, been REPLACED by Isaac, In God’s eyes, “Isaac the second born” was always the only true and legitimate Son, being the Son that He had promised, and being the very fulfillment of His Word. (Genesis 17:15-21.)

This can be verified by Genesis 22:2.;
And He said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.” (“thine only son” repeated within Genesis 22:12. & 16., mentioned three times.)

Thine Only” above, being derived from the Hebrew adjective “יְחִֽידְךָ֤”, transliterated as “yachiyd” and defined as “only, only one, solitary, one, unique”.

As well, it is interesting to note, that the very first time that the word “love” is utilized within Scripture, is also in Genesis 22:2. where God utilizes it in reference to Isaac, (as being a “type” of Yeshua).

Thematically, the recorded events of Genesis 22:1-19. are an amazing symbolic foreshadowing of what was to occur years later, with the mention of “third day”, (Genesis 22:4.).
Abraham stating, that God Himself would provide the Lamb for the Sacrifice, (Genesis 22:8.) and Abraham’s prophetic naming of that Sacred location as “יִרְאֶה יְהוָה, YHVH Sees and Provides”, (Genesis 22:14.).

The Sacrifice of our Lord taking place in Jerusalem on the very same Mount Moriah, and to Isaac not appearing within the text of scripture as being physically present again, until he meets Rebekah for the first time, (Genesis 24:63,64.). Rebekah here, being a foreshadowing who symbolically represents, the Bride of Yeshua.

And though we aren’t provided with any specificity regarding time frame as to when all of this occurred, it wouldn’t surprise me in the least, if this blessed event between Abraham and Isaac, didn’t actually take place on what would end up being Nissan 14th., or Passover.

(As well, though not necessarily relevant to these specific passages, but just as a point of interest, though not a virgin birth, the birth of Isaac, (with Abraham being one hundred years old and with Sarah being barren and now 91) was also by Divine Intervention of God and Spirit.
Just like the birth of Yeshua was. Both births were a fulfillment of God’s Promise, and orchestrated through and by, Divine Intervention.)

Furthermore, since Abraham’s Faith meant that he also Believed God when He said, “thou shalt be a father of many nations”, (Genesis 17:4. and Romans 4:17,18.) and that God said that the promise and covenant, would be fulfilled through Isaac/(Yeshua), “I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his SEED after him”, (Genesis 17:19., Galatians 3:16., Hebrews 2:16.) then Abraham had no choice but to logically conclude, that if he did happen to complete the sacrifice of his son Isaac, for God’s Promises and Covenant to be fulfilled, God would have to also Resurrect Isaac.

This last point is alluded to within Hebrews 11:19. yet, this symbolic foreshadowing all came to fruition and climaxed years later when the True Promise and Covenant were also fulfilled, with the Sacrifice and Resurrection of the “One True Seed”, our Lord and Saviour, Yeshua HaMashiach.

Now, for those that were aware of the above, and for those of you that may have just been enlightened, how do we know that the above is to be understood as a factual and true allegory, rather than being merely a coincidence?

Well, because God has stated through Hosea, that He has provided us with these “types of allegories” within Scripture itself.

Hosea 12:10.;
I have also spoken (dâbar; to speak or promise) by the prophets, and I have multiplied visions, and usedsimilitudes, by the ministry of the prophets.

The word “similitudes” above was derived from the Hebrew verb “אֲדַמֶּֽה” transliterated as “damah”.
Damah is primarily defined as, “to be like, to resemble” and within the Piel verb tense, “to liken, to compare, to imagine and think”.

Where within the context of Hosea 12:10., a damah then could be better understood in English as being an allegory.
And in having been spoken by God, this would also mean, that God has provided for us within Scripture, verses that have consisted of “duality or multiplicity of meanings”, or “recordings of historical events”, that were in actuality also allegories.

Therefore, these damah’s or allegories are symbolic foreshadowing’s, and as in the “historical account of Abraham and Isaac” they are to be understood in respects to God expressing another separate and distinct Biblical Truth, above and beyond what is being expressed within the mere surface of the text itself.

Which accordingly then would also indicate, that a damah that has been provided by God in the above context, would be a symbolic foreshadowing to take into consideration as “instruction, direction or teaching” and are therefore in essence, also Torah (tôwrâh).

Torah then, shouldn’t be limited to just the Mosaic Law, or the first five Books of the Tanakh, or even what we would simply recognize as being a literal, “Commandment (s) from God”, which are written within both the Old First Covenant and the New Second Covenant text, because God in His Glory is beyond multifaceted, and He expresses tôwrâh in a variety of different ways.

Damah’s are a unique form of prophecy.
Much of what we would perceive as being prophetic text, is structured in a way that we can confidently make that determination.
However damah’s are different.

For the most part, damah’s are what we would simply recognize as being an historical account of some specific event. And though damah’s are also comparable examples and symbolic foreshadowing's of a future event that has yet to take place, they are also not necessarily an exact match to the specific event itself.
(For example, Jonah was in the belly of a whale for three days and three nights, whereas Yeshua was in the belly of the earth, for three days and three nights.)

As well, (though there are some exceptions) damah’s are almost impossible to identify until the event itself has actually taken place.
However, after the event has taken place, the parallels between the damah and the event, are suggestive enough for us to be able to make the connection through the Spirit

Now, did God provide us with any other damah’s or allegories in the historical recording of Abram’s/Abraham’s life, above and beyond that of Abraham and Isaac?

YES!” Numerous times actually.
Another example of a damah or allegory would be that “Abram, (and Sarai) symbolically foreshadow Israel”.

Below I will provide just a few of the parallels to substantiate that claim;

Due to there being a famine in the land, Abram (Jacob) moved to Egypt, where while there, Sarai (Israel) was taken and held by Pharaoh.
Consequently as a result of that, YHVH caused plagues to come upon Pharaoh and all of his house. Where when Sarai (Israel) was released, and Abram (Israel) and all of his family and servants left, they left very rich, with livestock, silver and gold.

Due to there being a famine in the land, Jacob (Abram) moved to Egypt, where while there, Israel (Sarai) was taken and held by Pharaoh.
Consequently as a result of that, YHVH caused plagues to come upon Pharaoh and all of his house. Where when Israel (Sarai) was released and Jacob’s (Abram’s) family Israel left, they left very rich, with servants, livestock, silver and gold.

Abram left his homeland of Ur with all of his family and possessions and dwelt in Haran.
Jacob, (Israel), left his homeland of Beersheba with all of his family and possessions and dwelt in Egypt.

Abram was called out of Haran by YHVH, and Abram with all of his family and possessions, started their long exodus to Canaan. Where during the course of that journey, Abram went to a mountain and built an altar, before continuing on in their long journey.

Israel was called out of Egypt by YHVH, and the family of Israel with all their possessions, started their long exodus to Canaan. Where during the course of that journey, Israel went to a mountain and built an altar, before continuing on in their long journey.

Abram was told by YHVH, to walk through the length and breadth of the land, northward, southward, eastward, and westward, (4). 

Israel was told by YHVH to walk through the wilderness of the land. Israel walked north, south, east and west, which lasted for forty years.

Abram and Lot, (though being of the same family) decided to separate, where Lot chose to live in the plain of Jordan.

The family of Israel separated, and the Reubenites, Gadites and half of the tribe of Manasseh divided the land east of the Jordan.

Abram built his First Altar in Shechem. 

Jacob (Israel) built his First Altar in Shechem, (after his name had been changed to Israel the first time).

Abram built his Second Altar near Bethel.

Jacob (Israel) built his Second Altar in Bethel, (just before his name had been changed to Israel for the second time).

Abram built Two Altars before a famine caused him and all of his family to move to Egypt, where Sarai, (who symbolically represents Israel) was held captive by Pharaoh. 

Jacob (Israel) built Two Altars before a famine caused him and all of his family to move to Egypt, where Israel was held captive by Pharaoh.

Though there are even more parallels that I could provide, I would hope that the above appeased those that were perhaps skeptical.

Furthermore, what can also be gleaned by the historical account of Abram symbolically representing Israel, is that he also symbolically represents ,
the JEW FIRST”.

Though Abram had obeyed each and every Command issued to him by YHVH, he wasn’t imputed and declared to be Righteous until after Melchizedek King of Salem, The Priest of God Most High had made HIS appearance in Genesis 14:18.
Melchizedek being, a foreshadowing of Yeshua, (Psalm 110:1-4. & Hebrews 6:20. etc.).

As well within Genesis 14:18., we have the very first time within Scripture that “bread and wine” is recorded, which would also be a foreshadowing of Yeshua and of, Matthew 26:26-28., Mark 14:22-25., Luke 22:17-20. and 1 Corinthians 11:24,25..

Now the very first time that “believed” is mentioned in Scripture is in respects to Abram in Genesis 15:6., and it is translated from the Hebrew verb “אָמַן” transliterated “'aman” which in the Hiphil verb tense, is defined as, “to stand firm, to trust, to be certain, to believe in”.

To “to stand firm, to trust, to be certain, and to believe” in something…… “IS FAITH”!

Therefore as a damah then, it would be reasonable to conclude that Abram, as the Exalted Father of Israel, also foreshadows and symbolically represents the Jew First”.

Paul states in Romans 1:16.;
For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

Or, if expressed in the following manner with the hopes of further clarifying what I am saying.

“For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every individualthat believeth; through Abram the Exalted Father, to the Jew first and through Abraham, the Father of multitudes and of nations, to the Greek.”

Abram symbolically represents the natural branches, those Jewish individuals who through God’s calling, have become a part of the Remnant according to the election of Grace.
The First of mere man to have Faith and Belief in Yeshua after His Death and Resurrection, who have followed the natural progression of God the Fathers orchestrated plan.

So what about the children that Abram/Abraham had, has God provided us with a damah in respects to them as well?
What about Ishmael the firstborn and Isaac the Second Born?
Wouldn’t everyone agree that Isaac REPLACED Ishmael?

Wasn’t Isaac the only heir (Genesis 24:36. & 25:5.) and the only one that received the birthright?
Isn’t Yeshua the Only True Heir, and the True Possessor of the Promised Birthright?

Okay then, I would like to pose a couple of questions….
Though Abram knew that he would father an heir, (Genesis 15:4.), and wasn’t aware yet that the promise of that heir, would be a son through Sarah, (Genesis 17:16.,19.,21. & 18:10.,14.). In hindsight with what we know now, “Was the “firstnatural in the flesh union between Abram and Hagar and the birth of “Ishmael”, simply a futile human attempt to bring about the fulfillment of God’s promise of a son?”

Of course it was!

I wonder what and who Ishmael” as a “symbolic foreshadowing” in being firstborn actually represents?

If Abraham in the damah of Genesis 22:1-19. is a “type” of God the Father, and Isaac (the second born) is a “type” of Yeshua, (God the Fathers Second Born) who do you think that Ishmael (the firstborn son) would be representing as a “type”?

For us, looking back to YHVH’S prophecy to Abram in Genesis 15:4., and knowing how all of it was to play out, we can clearly see as to how insignificant Ishmael ended up being, compared to everything that God accomplished through Isaac, Abraham’s second son, with Yeshua being a direct descendant, and the very SEED of Isaac. Yeshua being the total fulfilment of the initial Promise of Genesis 3:15..
Though Ishmael would have been present, he is not even mentioned or acknowledged by the Lord or His angels within the entire chapter of Genesis 18.

God Himself says in Ecclesiastes 4:15.;
I considered all the living which walk under the sun, with the second child that shall stand up in his stead.

But there were TWO sons.
And although they were distinct and separate from each other, both were from the same Father. Both were from the same SOURCE.

Ishmael the FIRST, naturally born of flesh to Abram by the Egyptian Hagar, a slave-woman in that futile human attempt to fulfill God's promise.

Then there was Isaac, who God has expressed is the only legitimate son, the SECOND, born of Divine Intervention to Abraham as the Heir, and the fulfillment of Promise, by God and Spirit, by a free-woman, a Princess of Nations and by Abraham’s true wife Sarah… (she who has a husband).

Father God did say in Isaiah 51:1,2., that those that seek Him and pursue righteousness are to look to Abraham your Father, (Father of both Jew and Gentile) and to Sarah.

Father God didn’t say in those two verses, to “Look to Abram and Hagar”.
Or for that matter, as dedicated and faithful as a servant that he was, neither did Father God say to look to “Moses” for righteousness either.

(Speaking of Hagar and Moses, and just as a point of interest, here is a rather thought-provoking parallel which occurred between the two of them.

Hagar saw the back of the “angel of the LORD” and Moses saw the back of “the LORD”.

In Genesis 16:13. Hagar questions, “And she called the Name of the LORD that spake unto her, “Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after Him that seeth me?”

The English “after Him” is derived from the Hebrew “אַחֲרֵ֥י” transliterated as “'achar”, which is defined by the Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance primarily as, “after that again, at, away from, back from behind, beside, by”. Strong’s also defines the word as, “properly, the hind part”.

In Exodus 33:20-23., YHVH says to Moses, “And He said, Thou canst not see My face: for there shall no man see Me, and live. And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand while I pass by: And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see My back parts: but My face shall not be seen.

The English “back parts” is derived from the Hebrew “אֲחֹרָ֑י” transliterated as “'achowr”, which is defined by the Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance primarily as, “afterward, back part, hereafter, hinder part, time to come, without”.)

Nevertheless, previously I had said that Paul has provided for us the “most critical assemblage of passages” to comprehend in respects to this topic. These passages actually answer the questions regarding "what" the Two Sons, Ishmael and Isaac symobically represent.

And what if I were to tell you that these are irrefutable passages within the New Second Covenant text, (if understood through the Holy Spirit), that state “in no uncertain terms” that if you are a believer in Yeshua, and you live by Faith, you are NOT to religiously observe the Mosaic Law!

And as a matter of fact, that these passages are explicit in that they express, that if you do religiously observe the Mosaic Law, you have not only completely misunderstood the message of the Gospel of Yeshua, but are also subjecting yourself by association, to judgment, and will neither be the Bride or an Heir, but will instead be tossed aside.

As stated before, these passages are what is contained within Galatians 4:21. through 5:1., and they are a significant KEY” in understanding the Gospel of Yeshua.
If the message that is expressed within these passages is actually understood, then the rest of what Paul and the other Apostle’s say within all the epistle’s regarding the Mosaic Law, can also be understood in the correct context.

Though initially the above regarding damah’s/tôwrâh may not appear to be necessarily relevant to anything within the Book of Galatians, this explanation that Paul provides in Galatians 4:21. through to 5:1., should demonstrate how they are in actuality, intimately interconnected.

For it is within these specific passages where Paul, inspired by the Holy Spirit, elaborates further as to what is also meant in respects to, Abram, Ishmael, and Hagar versus, Abraham, Isaac and Sarah.

Where Paul expresses that they as individuals also represent being a damah, a comparative example and a symbolic foreshadowing of another distinct Biblical Truth.

And again, it is my sincere hope, that when this damah is fully understood, as Tôwrâh, the context regarding the rest of what Paul and the other Apostle’s say within their epistle’s regarding the Mosaic Law, also becomes abundantly clear.

NOTE; Within Galatians 4:24., of the King James, Paul utilizes a word that was translated into “allegory”. This translation was derived from the Greek verb “ἀλληγορούμενα”, transliterated as “allēgoroumena”, and is defined as, “to speak allegorically or in a figure”.

And if you were to research Galatians 4:24. for an equivalent for “allegory” in a Hebrew B'rit Chadashah or New Second Covenant, you would find the Hebrew “מָשַׁל”, a verb, like the Greek, which is transliterated as, “mashal”, and is primarily defined as, “to represent, liken, be like, (Niphal tense) to liken, be like, be similar, (Hiphil tense) to compare, (Hithpael tense) to become like, as well as to speak in a proverb”.

Therefore, this Hebrew word can also be accurately utilized to denote a similitude, proverb, or parable, where all of which would be considered to be a synonym for a damah.

And please keep in mind that a damah in this context, (as per Hosea 12:10.) though not a literal written Commandment, it is “direction, instruction and teaching” that was spoken by God and written within Scripture through that of His prophets, so that in itself would make the following “Tôwrâh”.

So with that, let’s continue with Galatians 4:21. where Paul now offers up to the Galatians (and us) what he would have sincerely hoped would be a remedy to what he believes to be an insurmountable problem, by explaining the meaning of what is one of God the Fathers damah’s.

4:21. Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?

As in previous examples these two laws are different, and many appear to misunderstand the above verse, which I hope that the below will help clarify.

The translated English “ye that desire” was derived from the Greek verb “θέλοντες”, transliterated as “thelontes”.
Thelontes is defined as, “to will, have in mind, intend, to be resolved or determined, to purpose, to desire, to wish etc.”.

Therefore within the first portion of the verse, the “ye that desire to be under the law”, Paul is referring to the Mosaic Law.

However, where Paul now incredulously concludes his question with, “do ye not hear the law?”, he is now referring to Torah/tôwrâh, and a time reaching back in history, far further than that of the Mosaic Law.

As previously stated, it’s unfortunate that neither the publications that are utilized by those that are proponents of the Mosaic Law, or the more traditional Bibles that we recognize today, make any distinction whatsoever regarding the Greek masculine noun “νόμον”, transliterated as “nomos”.
Within their publications “nomos” is translated into “Torah”, where within the Bible, it is translated into “law”, and “spiritual discernment” has to be used to ascertain which is which.

Nevertheless, this fact can be easily confirmed, simply because Paul starts speaking of Abraham, Ishmael, Hagar and Isaac and Sarah within the very next verse of 4:22..

As well is the fact, that all the narrative from this point forward in chapter 4, is all from Torah, (with the exception of verse 4:27., [Isaiah 54:1.] which also happens to reference Torah) and a time that predates the Mosaic Law.

To further verify the above, the actual Morphological New Testament Greek text for verse 4:21. is rendered as;
“λέγετέ μοι οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε

And would be transliterated as;
“legete moi hoi hypo nomom thelontes einai ton nomom ouk akouete”.

As rendered, this in turn would translate into English as;
“Tell me you who under law want to be the law do you not hear?”

In context, the translated “hear” above, has far more to do with the concept of “understanding” rather than anything audible.

With “hear” being derived from the Greek verb, “ἀκούετε”, transliterated as “akouete” from the definitions of the word, it is to be understood as, “to attend to, consider what is or has been said, to understand, perceive the sense of what is said, to comprehend, to understand, to give ear to a TEACHING or a teacher to learn”.

Therefore, as stated, what Paul was actually asking in his question was;
Tell me you that desire to be under the Mosaic Law, do you not understand Tôwrâh?

Which again is exactly where Paul goes next within the very next verse, straight to the Torah to explain the duality of meaning of what was a historical and significant event, and to explain that this is also a damah, a comparative example and a symbolic foreshadowing of another distinct Biblical Truth.

And Paul does this with the hopes that this explanation of God’s damah will be a remedy and a solution, that will not only help to substantiate his position, but also open the eyes of the Galatians to the error of their ways. And as well, that his explanation will also expose the consequences associated to the Galatians, (and any other believer’s) ill-fated “choice” to be a religious observer of the Mosaic Law.

Continuing from the beginning, here are the verses that we will go over in detail;

Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband. Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free. Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

4:21. Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?

Or, “Tell me you that desire to be under the Mosaic Law, do you not understand Tôwrâh?

4:22. For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one (Ishmael) by a bondmaid, (Hagar, a slave in bondage) the other (Isaac) by a freewoman (Sarah, a free and married Princess of Nations).

So above we have two sons, and though both come from the same father (FATHER and SOURCE), there is an obvious oppositional distinction between one another.
One son, Ishmael the FIRST born son of Hagar the Egyptian, is associated with bondage.
Whereas Isaac, the SECOND born Son of Sarah, is associated with freedom.

Paul continues….

4:23. But he (Ishmael) who was of the bondwoman (Hagar) was born after the flesh (naturally, by the mere act of human procreation); but he (Isaac) of the freewoman (Sarahwas (born) by promise (by Spirit and Divine Intervention).

Again we have two sons from the same father, (FATHER and SOURCE), and again we have an oppositional distinction between them.
Paul now elaborates and says that Ishmael, who was the FIRST born son of Hagar, an Egyptian slave in bondage, was born after the flesh, naturally, by human effort, in what would have been a futile attempt to fulfill the Divines promise.

Where Isaac, that was the SECOND born Son of Sarah, a free and married Princess of Nations, was born by the fulfillment of promise, (by Spirit and Divine Intervention, just like Yeshua).

Consider that distinction and what Paul also says in Romans 9:6-8.;
Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all ISRAEL, which are of Israel: Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is, they which are the children of the flesh, these are NOT the children of God: But the children of the PROMISE are COUNTED for the seed.

Notice how Galatians 4:23. and Romans 9:6-8. echo what Yeshua said within His conversation with Nicodemus in John 3:3-7..
Yeshua said, “That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is Spirit.

Yeshua was saying that an individual’s genealogical heritage is irrelevant, and that no matter what that lineage may be, they as a firstborn are simply flesh, and that they must become “born again, (anōthen; from above)” as a second born of Spirit to see the Kingdom of God.

So another way we can distinguish between the two sons, is to understand that, Ishmael is a Firstborn and is simply flesh.
Whereas Isaac is a Second Born of Spirit and Promise, (See Galatians 3:14. & Ephesians 1:13.).

Now, above Paul has just prefaced what he is about to reveal, by expressing the antithetical contrasts between Ishmael the Firstborn, and Isaac the Second Born.

And we know from Genesis 22:1-19. that Isaac symbolically represents Yeshua.
And that like Yeshua, Isaac is the ONLY HEIR, where Ishmael is not only “cast out” but he also receives nothing from Abraham, (who is a “type” of Father God within that damah).

The following verses that we are about to go through in detail, also convey in no uncertain terms, that Ishmael as firstborn symbolically represents nonbelieving Israel, YHVH’S firstborn, (Exodus 4:22.) and that Isaac as Second Born, not only symbolically represents Yeshua, God The Fathers Second Born and Only Begotten Son, The Promise, but also every individual be they Jew or Gentile that believes in Yeshua and who lives by Faith, rather than by the Mosaic Law.

Again, remember that Abraham was a “type” of God the Father, and it was YHVH, God The Father, Who provides man with His FIRST and SECOND Covenants.

Paul continues……

4:24. Which things are an allegory (or damah): for these (Ishmael and Hagar vs. Isaac and Sarah) ARE the TWO COVENANTS; (Ishmael and Hagar are the FIRST and they symbolically represent the Old FIRST Covenant of the Mosaic Law the Covenant of slavery and bondage.) the one (Hagar) from the mount Sinai, (where the Mosaic Law was given) which gendereth (or gives birth) to bondage (slavery), which is Agar (or which is symbolic to Hagar, an Egyptian slave in bondage).

4:25. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia (Hagar is symbolic to mount Sinai in Arabia, where the Mosaic Law was revealed), and answereth to (parallels or resembles) Jerusalem which now is, (the earthly Jerusalem that is under the Mosaic Law) and is in bondage (slavery to that law) with her children (those that still observe the Mosaic Law).

The above two verses together state, that out of these two separate and distinct from one another mothers and children, which symbolically represent and foreshadow, the Two separate and distinct from one another Covenants, the slave Hagar, symbolically represents and foreshadows mount Sinai. And when she became a mother to Ishmael, he symbolically represents and foreshadows what was born on Sinai, which was the Old FIRST Covenant of Mosaic Law.

Ishmael, who was born of the flesh by the Egyptian slave Hagar was the FIRST, and they symbolically represents and foreshadow the Old FIRST Covenant of the Mosaic Law, the Covenant of slavery and bondage that was revealed on mount Sinai.

The damah that Paul is explaining could also be understood like this.
When Abram and Sarai left Egypt, they would have brought Hagar the Egyptian slave with them, (Genesis 12:16.). Biblically, Egypt denotes “bondage”.
Sarai then gives Hagar (or bondage) to Abram as wife, and Ishmael who symbolically represents the Old FIRST Covenant is figuratively born on or through Sinai.

Above in verse 4:25., Paul also makes the association of Hagar symbolically representing the earthly Jerusalem.

That would be completely opposite to Sarah.
Sarah is a free and married Princess of Nations, who gave birth to Isaac SECOND, where they symbolically represent the New SECOND Covenant of freedom and promiseSarah then symbolically represents the Heavenly Jerusalem.

Isaac is a completely separate and distinct individual compared to Ishmael.
Isaac was born by the fulfillment of promise to Sarah, and in being born SECOND, Isaac would then symbolically represent and foreshadow Yeshua, and His New Second Covenant consisting of freedom, which would then also be, a completely separate and distinct Covenant.

Remember as well that in Genesis 22:2., Father God has expressed, (with Thine Only Son) that He only considers “Isaac”, the child of Promise to be legitimate.
Which by association would also mean, that Father God only considers the New Second Covenant that His Only Begotten Son died to create, to be legitimate as well.

4:26. But Jerusalem which is above is free, (as opposed to the earthly Jerusalem, the Heavenly Jerusalem for those that are “inYeshua, is free and in liberty, and those that LIVE by FAITH have been redeemed and ransomed from the Mosaic Law, Galatians 3:13., 4:5.) which is the mother of us all (the Heavenly Jerusalem is our Mother as Sarah is our mother).

Here Paul makes another oppositional distinction.
The Jerusalem that he refers to within 4:25. is the FIRST Jerusalem, it is the mother that is still in bondage with her children, under the Mosaic Law. Paul is also making the point, that these children do not believe that Yeshua was/is the Messiah, nor do they believe in God’s Promise.

As stated previously in respects to Galatians 1:15., Mother, the Greek feminine noun “μήτηρ” or “mētēr” is also defined as a metaphor as being, “the source of something”.

In 4:26. Paul now refers to the Heavenly SECOND Jerusalem as being the Mother of us all, and this Mother is free and in liberty, which again is symbolically represented by Sarah.

Here Paul, (by including himself) is also making the point that those whose Mother is the Heavenly Jerusalem, do believe that Yeshua was/is the Messiah, but more importantly, they also fully believe and Live in Faith by Trusting in God’s Promise.

If Paul has just made the association of Hagar symbolically representing the earthly Jerusalem, being the mother that gave birth to Ishmael, and the mother that is still in bondage with her children under the Mosaic Law, then conversely, in oppositional contrast, Sarah would be the Mother that is symbolically representing the Heavenly SECOND Jerusalem, being the Mother that gave birth to Isaac, the Mother that is NOT still in bondage with her children under the Mosaic Law, but is instead, like Sarah, free and in liberty with Her Children.

Now within the next verse, Paul quotes from Isaiah 54:1., before he continues on speaking of Isaac and Ishmael again.
This is significant, because it means that this verse is relevant to the above narrative and its inclusion here must be understood in this context.

As I have done previously, I will also provide in italics some of the definitions from the Greek, and the Hebrew in Isaiah 54:1..

Remember as well, it is Sarah that is naturally barren, and is the one that is truly married and has a husband, (which is also symbolic).
I acknowledge that Hagar was also given to Abram as a wife, (Genesis 16:3.) but God only recognized Sarah and only changed her name to “Princess of Multitudes and Nations” making her the legitimate spouse of Abraham.

4:27. For it is written, Rejoice, (cry out in joy, praise and exultation) thou barren that bearest not; (Sarah) break forth and cry, (cry out in joy) thou that travailest not: (again Sarah) for the desolate (deserted, of a flock deserted by the shepherd, deprived of aid and protection) hath many more children than she (again Sarah) which hath an husband. (Sarah being truly married to Abraham, which is symbolic to believer’s that Live by Faith in Yeshua being referred to as the bride.)

Isaiah 54:1.;
Sing, (in joy, exultation and praise) O barren, thou that didst not bear; (Sarah) break forth into singing, (in proclamation of gladness, joy and praise) and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child: (again Sarah) for more are the children of the desolate (to be desolated, be deflowered, be deserted, be appalled) than the children of the married wife, (again Sarah) saith the LORD.

Though Galatians 4:27. is written in Greek, it is virtually identical to the Hebrew of Isaiah 54:1. And what should be alarming, is the negative connotations that are associated to the applicable definitions for the word “desolate”, which are derived from the Greek adjective “ἐρήμου”, transliterated as, “erēmou”, and the Hebrew verb “שָׁמֵם”, transliterated as “shamem”.

In context, both verses above express that the “desolate children”, would be referring to those individuals, of unbelieving Israel that are not part of the Remnant or Elect that have been called by God the Father according to Grace. (However, it could also be expanded to include each and every Gentile that is not part of the Remnant or Elect who also haven’t been called by God the Father according to Grace as well.)

Yet at the same time, remember that Paul is using these verses to teach those that are already Believers and have Faith in Yeshua, and who have also already been born of the Spirit, what the dangers are to their current understanding that it is necessary to religiously observe the Mosaic Law!

4:28. Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.

Here Paul is making another oppositional distinction.
Within the above verses we are provided with more information regarding the “children”.
There are the children of thedesolate”, and there are the children ofpromise”.

Let’s look at Romans 9:6-8. again;
Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all ISRAEL, which are of Israel: Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are NOT the children of God: But the children of the PROMISE are COUNTED for the seed.

Again, those that would be considered to be, the “children of the desolate” and the earthly Jerusalem are individuals of nonbelieving Israel, who don’t believe that Yeshua is the fulfillment of God’s Promise, and are those that still religiously observe the Mosaic Law.
These individuals are symbolically represented by “Ishmael”.

This would be opposed to those that are the children of the Heavenly Jerusalem, consisting of both Jew and Gentile that Live by Faith who are the "children of God" and the children of promise, which are symbolically represented by “Isaac”.

Once more, God has already declared in Genesis 22:2., that He only recognizes “Isaac”, the child of Promise to be legitimate.
Therefore one would logically conclude, that God would also only recognize those that are regarded to be the future figurative children” of Abraham and Sarah, (Isaac) as being legitimate.

Again Galatians 3:6,7.;
Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. Know ye therefore that they which are of Faith, the same are the children of Abraham.

Paul is also utilizing Isaac, and associating his birth by Divine Intervention, to Yeshua’s birth by Divine Intervention. And in doing so, as Isaac was Abraham’s child of promise born of Spirit, and as Yeshua was the Father’s Child of Promise born of Spirit, that we as well, with our faith and belief in Yeshua, are children of that promise, born of that same Spirit. (John 3:6.)

4:29. But as then (as written in Torah) he (Ishmael a firstborn) that was born after (according to) the flesh persecuted (in any way whatever to harass, trouble, molest one, to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavour to acquire) him (Isaac) that was born after (according to) the Spirit, (like us, being second born according to the Spirit, by promise, Divine Intervention, and with Faith in Yeshua alone) even so it is now.

Above Paul is referring again to Torah, and is continuing to explain the meaning of the damah.

He is now speaking specifically of Genesis 21:9. to make the point that, as Ishmael mocked and persecuted Isaac, the same thing was happening in his day. That history was/is repeating itself, (Ecclesiastes 1:9.).

Paul is saying that those individuals that have falsely persuaded and bewitched the Galatians into believing it was necessary to religiously keep the Mosaic Law are symbolically represented by Ishmael when he persecuted Isaac.

And as it was then, when Paul actually wrote this, it continues to this very day as well.
History is repeating itself.
For there are many within the Hebrew Roots Movement who are also "falsely persuading" and attempting to "bewitch" those that LIVE by FAITH, to religiously observe the Mosaic Law today.

And that makes what Paul references next, something that " those individuals" should seriously take into consideration.

4:30. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall NOT  be heir with the son of the freewoman .

Genesis 21:10., “Wherefore she said unto Abraham, “ Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall NOT be heir with my son, even with Isaac".

Remember that Isaac symbolically represents Yeshua, and His New Second Covenant, where Hagar and Ishmael symbolically represent the Old First Covenant and those that religiously observe the Mosaic Law. So Paul in utilizing the verses above, is stating that, like Hagar and Ishmael were “cast out”, those that attempt to "falsely persuade and bewitch" believers that LIVE by FAITH to edify the Old First Covenant and to religiously observe the Mosaic Law will also be “ cast out”.

Paul is also saying that whether an individual believes in Yeshua or not, like Ishmael and Hagar were “cast out”, if believers choose to also religiously observe the Mosaic Law, then THEY will be CAST OUT as well, and will NOT be HEIR'S with Sarah’s son Isaac, (Yeshua).

If this isn’t Paul’s position and concern, then the whole epistle to the Galatians is simply pointless! Because the Galatians obviously Believed in and had Faith Yeshua, and had also evidently been born again of the Spirit, (i.e. Galatians 3:2.).

Cast out in Galatians 4:30., was derived from the Greek verb “ἔκβαλε”, transliterated as, “ekbale”.
Though the definitions for ekbale are quite extensive, some of the applicable definitions in this context are, “to cast out, drive out, to send out, with notion of violence, to expel a person from a society: to banish from a family, to reject with contempt, to cast off or away”.

Cast out from Genesis 21:10. was derived from the Hebrew verb, “גָּרַשׁ”, transliterated as “gârash”.
Gârash is defined as, “to drive out, expel, cast out, drive away, divorce, put away, thrust away, trouble, cast up. And in the Piel verb tense “to drive out, drive away”.
This would be why Paul is afraid for the Galatians and calls them foolish!  (Galatians 3:1. & 4:11.) 

Gârash is a primitive root; to drive out from a possession; especially to expatriate or divorce, and it is only utilized three (3) times in the Book of Genesis. It is used above within Genesis 21:10. in Genesis 3:24. in regards to Adam and Eve being “cast out” of Eden, and in Genesis 4:14. in regards to Cain being “cast out” from the face of the earth and from the face of YHVH.

Nevertheless, Abraham was told by God in Genesis 21:12. to listen to Sarah, and do what she said, because, “for in Isaac shall thy Seed be called.

Genesis 21:12., has duality of meaning where, it obviously refers to Yeshua as the Seed, (Galatians 3:16., Hebrews 2:16.) but also refers to those who Live by Faith, that will become the future figurative “children” of Abraham and Sarah as well. Those that Paul refers to as "the children of promise".
Take note that the Seed of Isaac, (Yeshua) are the ones that will be called, NOT the seed of Ishmael.

Therefore, the casting out of Ishmael and Hagar, was congruent with Gods Will.
God agreed with Sarah and her decision, to cast Ishmael and Hagarout together in Torah/Tôwrâh.

And above from Scripture, and Paul’s explanation of what is a damah of God’s, we have just been told, that Ishmael and Hagar symbolically represent, flesh - futile human effort, firstborns, slavery, bondage, Sinai, the earthly Jerusalem, unbelieving Israel, desolate children , the Old First Covenant and the Mosaic Law, as well as those that falsely persuade and attempt to bewitch those that Live by Faith to religiously observe the same!

4:31. So then, brethren we are NOT children of the bondwoman, but of the FREE.

WE” are NOT the desolate children of Hagar, like Ishmael, but are instead considered to be a child of Abraham and Sarah like “Isaac” and free.
WE” are the “children of Promise” who have Faith in Yeshua’s finished work on the Cross and fully Trust in God's Promise!
WE” are those that Live solely by that Faith and Trust, and walk in the Spirit, rather than by works of the Mosaic Law!
That is the Gospel of Yeshua. The One True Faith.

Paul, in his explanation of this damah, has been expressing a antithetical contrast throughout these passages, (and this epistle) between choosing one or the other”. There is either the “choice” of “Living by Law” like Moses, or “Living by Faith” like Abraham.

These are two entirely distinct and diametrically opposed means for mere man to obtain and maintain a state of “tsĕdaqah”, Righteousness, Vindication, Justification, Reconciliation and Salvation before a Holy God.

One is "our" Work, and One is Faith.
One is from Moses, and One is from the Promise and the SEED of Abraham, from Yeshua and His Work and God's Promise.
We can’t be both Isaac and Ismael at the same time!

And as well, Paul has not only revealed that it is not only unnecessary to religiously observe the Mosaic Law as believer’s in Yeshua, but that believing it is necessary is extremely dangerous and it is not without its dire consequences.

Hence he concludes this explanation of this damah with the very next verse.

5:1. Stand fast (stēkō; stand firm, persevere, persist) therefore in the liberty (eleutheria; liberty to do or to omit things having no relationship to salvation) wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be NOT entangled again (enechō; be subjected, be held, be held ensnared, to be engaged) with the yoke (zygos; as a metaphor; any burden or bondage) of bondage (douleia; of slavery, the condition of a slave).

Which in context, in taking into account the fulness of Paul’s explanation of what is one of Father God’s damah’s, “the yoke of bondage” is the Mosaic Law.
  

Book of Galatians Law vs Grace with Firsts and Seconds including God's Promise and discussion of Faith compared to Mosaic Law